The wing's mission expanded in July 1948 when it received the 509th Air Refueling Squadron and its KB-29M hose-type tankers and later with B/KB–29P boom–type tankers. Although aerial refueling had been accomplished as far back as the 1920s, the Air Force decided to make it a permanent part of its operations. In fact, the 509th AREFS was one of the first two AREFSs ever activated. In the first week of December 1948, the squadron began receiving the KB-29M, modified B-29 bombers capable of providing air-to-air refueling for bombers using a refueling hose [vs. today's USAF standard flying boom]. With the addition of tankers, the 509th's bombers could reach nearly any point on earth. In June 1950, the wing received the B-50D Superfortress and in January 1954, the KC-97 Stratotanker replaced the aging KB-29Ms.509th BW B-47 Era badgeThe 509th BW entered the jet age in June 1955 when it received the B-47E Stratojet, the first all-jet bomber. Deployed as a wing several times in the early 1950s, three times to England on REFLEX deployments and once to Guam, the wing also deployed individual squadrons at other times. Temporarily had no refueling unit during 1958. The 509th BW moved its personnel and equipment to Pease AFB, N.H. in August 1958. By 1961 it was believed that the B-47 was becoming obsolete and President John F. Kennedy directed that the phaseout of the B-47 be accelerated. However this was delayed in July by the onset of the Berlin crisis of 1961-62.
The 509th was initially phased down for inactivation in late 1965 as a part of the retirement of the B-47, but instead was converted to a B-52D Stratofortress wing in 1966. The 509th was taken off nuclear alert as its B-52Ds were designed to carry a large number of conventional bombs (84 500-lb Mk 82 or 42 750 lb M-117s) for service in the Vietnam War as part of Operation Arc Light. The wing deployed KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and crews, November 1966– December 1975; with B–52 aircraft and crews, November 1966– September 1969, and with B–52 crews, 1970. From 1 April to 1 October 1968 and 26 March to c. 20 September 1969, more than one-half of the wing was deployed to Andersen AFB, Guam to support SAC operations in Southeast Asia.
On 1 December 1969 was wing redesignated as the 509th Bombardment Wing, Medium and began receiving the FB-111A strategic bomber in December 1970. The FB-111A was the all-weather strategic bombing version of the Tactical Air Command F-111 which was equipped to carry the AGM-69 SRAM that carried a nuclear warhead with an explosive yield of 200 kilotons. The 509th would operate the aircraft for two decades. Won the SAC Bombing and Navigation competition and the Fairchild trophy in 1979, 1981, 1982, and 1983. Awarded the Sanders trophy for best air refueling unit in 1982.
As the Rockwell B-1B Lancer came into service, the FB-111 became redundant to SAC needs In 1988, Pease AFB was one of several Air Force installations closed as part of the base realignment and closure commission recommendation. The 509th's FB-111s were transferred from SAC to TAC between june and December 1990, being redesignated as F-111G and converted into a tactical bomber.